Example Provenance Records
Below are several examples of provenance records written using the CMOA provenance standard. THe information contained within these records is under constant research and may contain inaccuracies.
Note that these records were written using v.0.1 of the provenance standard, and as the standard evolves over the course of Art Tracks, Phase II, these examples will likely change.
For more information about any of these works, please contact the Carnegie Museum of Art.
Claude Oscar Monet [1840-1926], France, until 1884; (purchased by Durand-Ruel, Paris, France, 1884 until 1891); sold to J. E. Chase, Boston, MA, April 20, 1891 ; Higginson, 1891 until 1906; (purchased by Durand-Ruel, Paris, France, April 1907) . (Sam Salz, Inc., New York, NY); purchased by Museum of Art, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, February 1973.
NOTES:  Recorded as "For Higginson", likely Henry Lee Higginson. J.E. Chase may have been acting as Higginson's agent.  Ph. A1035, NY 7395.
Perugino [1450?-1523]. Commissioned by Confraternity of St. Augustine, Perugia, Italy, 1500? . Possibly Confraternity of St. Augustine sale, Perugia, Italy, in the 17th century . Lucien Bonaparte [1775-1840], Paris, France, by 1802 until February 6, 1815 ; (sold at Buchanan, London, February 6, 1815, no. 86) ; Chevalier Boyer, his nephew, London, England, until May 16, 1816 . Christian William Huybens, London, England, by 1822; (sold at George Stanley, London, England, March 27, 1822, lot 110) . Acquired by L. J. Nieuwenhuys, July 15, 1823 ; purchased by King Willem II of the Netherlands [1792-1849], Kneuterdijk Palace, The Hague, Netherlands, after July 1823 until 1849 ; Estate of King William II, 1849 until August 12, 1850. King Willem II of the Netherlands sale, Kneuterdijk Palace, The Hague, Netherlands, on August 12, 1850, no. 169 . King William II of the Netherlands sale, 1851. (Weimar as agent, 1851) ; Prince Hendrik of the Netherlands [1820-1879], Luxembourg, 1851 until 1879 ; by descent to Grand Duchess Sophie [1824-1897], Grand-Duchal Palace, Weimar, Germany, 1883 . By descent to Grand Duke Willhelm Ernst [1876-1923], Weimar, Germany, 1901? until 1923 . Schlossmuseum Weimar, Weimar, Germany, by 1926 . (Sold at Cassirer, Amsterdam, Netherlands); Richard Weininger, Berlin, Germany, by January 1930 . (Wildenstein & Company, Inc., New York, NY); Mr. and Mrs. W. Erickson, New York, NY, until November 1961; (sold at Parke-Bernet Galleries, New York, November 15, 1961) ; purchased by Department of Fine Arts, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, November 1961.
NOTES:  See O'Malley, "Quality, Demand, and the Pressures of Reputation: Rethinking Perugino", The Art Bulletin, Volume LXXXIX, Number 4, 2007 for information on the date of commission and completion of this work.  In the exhibition catalogue for the 1930 Royal Academy exhibition Italian Art 1200-1900, the provenance reports that this work was "Sold by auction of the Brothers in the 17th century." See page 208.  For information on Lucien Bonaparte's ownership of this work, see Béatrice Edelein-Badie, "La collection de tableaux de Lucien Bonparte, prince de Canino", 1995, page 239 and generally. This work then appears on page 126, plate 28, of "Choix de gravures à l'eau-forte d'après les peintures et les marbres de la galerie de Lucien Bonaparte", published in 1812. It is then listed for sale in Bonaparte's auction on Febuary 6. 1815.  Bought in.  Because this work was bought in at the Bonaparte sale in 1815, in 1816 it appears in the "Catalogue of the Splendid Collection of Pictures Belonging to Lucien Buonaparte, Prince of Canino". It advertises an exhibition of works "Now on private view at Chevalier Boyer's, No. 31 Leicester Square, London." Inside is a disclosure that "Proposals for the Purchase of any of the Pictures in this Collection are to be made to the Chevalier Boyer, nephew of Lucien Buonaparte, Prince of Canino, at No. 31 Leicester Square." This work is listed as no. 80, "St. Augustine" on page 22. The sale occurred on May 14-16, 1816.  This sale was entitled "The beautiful, choice, and truly valuable collection of pictures, the property of Christian William Huybens, a bankrupt; comprising unusually fine specimens of the greatest masters of the Florentine, Roman, Venetian, Lombard, and Bolognese schools, with many exquiste bijoux of the renowned and highly coveted painters of Flanders and Holland", and sold for £68.5 according to the Getty Provenance Index.  his work was bought for Dfl 2,825. See "'A small but choice collection'; the Art Gallery of King Willem II of the Netherlands" by Hinterding and Horsch, pg. 108.  See Hinterding and Horsch, pg. 10. This work is recorded as being purchased by Nieuwenhuys in July of 1823, and then sold to King Willem II sometime after.  This work is bought in at this sale, failing to reach its reserve of Dfl. 8,000, only reaching Dfl. 7,400. See Hinterding and Horsch, pg 108.  Hinterding and Horsch list this work as being sold for Dfl. 6,000 to "Weimar (art dealer) for Prince Hendrik", referring to  Prince Hendrik, or Prince Willem Frederik Hendrik was the 3rd son of King Willem II of the Netherlands, and third in line for the throne. By 1850, Prince Hendrik was serving as Governor of Luxembourg, a post he served in until his death.  Grand Duchess Sophie of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach was the daughter of King Willem II, and the sister of Prince Hendrik. She married her first cousin, Karl Alexander August Johann, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, also known as Charles Alexander.  It is likely that this work descended to Willhelm Ernst through his grandfather, Grand Duke Charles Alexander, the spouse of Grand Duchess Sophie. When Grand Duke Charles Alexander died in 1901, Willhelm Ernst succeeded him as Grand Duke. This work is recorded as being in the possession of the "Grand Duke, Weimar" on page 191 in Bombe, "Perugino: Des Meisters Gemälde", written in 1914, so we know that it was with Willhelm Ernst at this point during his reign as Grand Duke. It then appears again in Umberto Gnoli's "Pietro Perugino", 1923, page 68, where the location is recorded as Weimar, and the "Castello"  This work is recorded as being in "Schlossmuseum Weimar" in Fritz Knapp "Perugino", 1926, and is number 69 in the book. Following the abdication of Grand Duke Wilhem Ernst in 1923, the title of Grand Duke was abolished, and the Schloss Weimar was turned in to a museum.  Weininger lent this work to the Royal Academy, London, for their exhibition on Italian Art from 1200-1900, which ran from January 1 until March 20, 1930. It appears on page 208 of the exhibition catalog, number 370, as "St. Augustine".  Erickson sale.
Mary Cassatt [1844-1926], France; Galeries Durand-Ruel, Paris, France, by August 1892 ; Durand-Ruel Galleries, New York, NY, 1895; purchased by Department of Fine Arts, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, October 1922.
NOTES:  Recorded in stock book in August 1892.
Gian Lorenzo Bernini [1598-1680], Rome, Italy, until 1622 . Ludovisi Family, Casa Ludovisi, Rome, Italy, by 1682 until at least 1713 . Unnamed family, Bologna, Italy . Corvisieri, Rome, Italy; Grégoire Stroganoff [1829-1910], Rome, Italy, until 1910 . Stroganoff Estate, Rome, Italy, 1910 until at least 1916 . Antonio Muñoz [1884-1960], Rome, Italy, by 1953 ; Antonio Muñoz Estate, Rome, Italy, 1960 until 1966? . (Wildenstein & Co., New York, NY, by 1972); purchased by Museum, February 1972.
NOTES:  Between October of 1621 and September 1622, Cardinal Borghese made several entries in account books about issuing payment to Bernini and foundry man Bastiano Sebastiani for the creation, casting and transport of busts of Pope Paul V and Pope Gregory XV. These account books form part of the Borghese archive, now part of the Vatican Secret Archives. They were transcribed by Italo Faldi in the Appendix documents of "Nuove note sul Bernini", Bolletino d'Arte, XXXVIII, No. 4, October-December 1953.  The Ludovisi family likely owned this work prior to 1682, but we know for certain that it was in their possession in 1682. In Baldinucci, "Vita del Cavaliere Gio Lorenzo Bernino", 1682, pg 104, two busts of Gregory XV are listed under "Ritratti, e teste con busto", one as "Di Gregorio XV" and the other, directly below, as "altro di metallo" and bracketed together as being "in casa Ludovisi." The two busts appear together in Domenico Bernino's "Vita del Cavlier Gio. Lorenzo Bernino", 1713, pg. 22-23, where he writes that " in marmo & in Metallo de'quali tré preferentemente se ne veggono nella Casa Ludovisi." In "Ritratti di alcuni celebri pittori del secolo XVII", Rome, 1731, pg. 140, the works are listed together again, however they are described as "già in Casa Ludovisi". From these references, we infer that the bust left the possession of the Ludovisi between 1713 and 1731.  Records indicate that this work went to a "Bolognese family related to the Ludovisi" but does not clarify the family name or a specific member of the family. See correspondence from Wildenstein & Co. in curatorial file.  Antonio Muñoz records Stroganoff as having purchased this work from Corvisieri, an antiquarian in Rome. See Muñoz "Un'opera del Bernini ritrovata," Vita d'Arte, Volume VIII, Number 48, December 1911, pg. 187-190. Stroganoff's name is also recorded as Count or Comte Stroganov, and as Gregorio Stroganoff.  This work was likely sold or dispersed between 1916 and 1928, as it is recorded in 1916 as "the fine bust of Gregory XV by Bernini, now in the Stroganoff collection." by Muñoz, "Studi sul Bernini," L'Arte, Vol. XIX, 1916, pg. 103-104. But in 1928, Muñoz reports that this work "was formerly in the Stroganoff collection in Rome." in "Roma Barocca, 2nd ed., Milan, 1928, pg. 104-105. It was definitely out of the collection by 1938, when it is mentioned as "A remarkable bronze bust of this pope remained in Rome until the Stroganoff collection was dispersed." in T. H. Fokker, "Roman Baroque Art", Oxford, 1938, p. 137.  It is likely that Muñoz acquired this work significantly before 1953, but it is referenced as being in his collection in Faldi, "Nuovo note sul Bernini," Bollettino d'Arte, XXXVIII, No. 4, October-December 1953, pg. 311-313. See translated clipping in curatorial file via Wildenstein & Co. Muñoz published a catalog of the collection of Grégoire Stroganoff in 1912 entitled "Pièces de Choix de la Collection du Comte Grégoire Stroganoff á Rome". A bust of Pope Gregory XV can be seen in a photograph of an interior room. Muñoz authored at least 7 articles about Bernini and this work.  Rudolph Wittkower records this sculpture as being "Formerly Muñoz collection, Rome (Recently exported to U.S.A.)" in his book "Gian Lorenzo Bernini", 2nd ed., 1966, pg. 180-181. Because of this note, we can assume that the work was out of Rome either in 1966 or before.
71.4; Nicola di Maestro Antonio d'Ancona; Madonna and Child Enthroned with SS. Leonard, Jerome, John the Baptist, and Francis, 1472
Nicola di Maestro Antonio d'Ancona [-1510?] ; Possibly commissioned by Girolamo Ferretti, Church of San Francesco delle Scale, Ancona, Italy. unnamed owner, Rome, Italy, by 1828 . Alexander Barker, London, England, by 1854 ; Unnamed owner, Hall's Place, Canterbury, England, until 1880 ; (Colnaghi, London, England); George Richmond [1809-1896], by 1885 until 1896 ; Estate of George Richmond, March 19, 1896 until May 1, 1897; (sold at Christie Manson & Woods, London, England, on May 1, 1897, lot 46) ; purchased by Lesser Lesser [1839?-1911], London, England, May 1897 until 1899 ; purchased by Vernon J. Watney [-1928], Cornbury Park, England, 1899 until 1928 ; by descent to Lady Margaret Watney, his wife [-1943], Cornbury Park, England, 1928 until 1943 ; by descent to Oliver Vernon Watney, her son [1902-1966], Cornbury Park, England, 1943 until 1966; Estate of Oliver Vernon Watney, 1966 until June 1967; (sold at Christie Manson & Woods, London, England, on June 23, 1967, lot 31, illustrated) ; (sold at Wildenstein & Company, Inc., New York, NY, February 1971); purchased by Museum, February 1971.
NOTES:  The artist was active from 1472, and the year of death is recorded as either 1510 or 1511.  This information comes from correspondence with Matteo Mazzalupi, see curatorial file.  The work is recorded as being in Barker's ownership in 1854 by the German art historian Gustav Friedrich Waagen. See Waagen, "Treasures of Art in Great Britain" 1854, v. II, page 128.  Hall's Place, in Harbledown near Canterbury, was a country home that underwent several changes in ownership and had many residents. It is uncertain which individual or family purchased this work.  George Richmond, R.A. attached a lengthy handwritten label found on the reverse of this work. On the label, he states that he purchased this work from Colnaghi, and records the early provenance of the work. It is dated December 4, 1885 and gives his address as 20 York Street, Portman Square W.  Auction entitled "Pictures of the early English, Old Italian and Flemish Schools formed by the Late George Richmond, R.A. also a selection of the works of the late George Richmond, R. A." See copy of auction catalog and correspondence of February 1971.  An annotated catalog from the George Richmond, R.A. sale records Lesser as the buyer of this work. Lesser was a London art dealer. His sale to Vernon J. Watney is recorded in "A Catalogue of Pictures and Miniatures At Cornbury and 11 Berkley Square, January 1915", which was compiled by "V. J. W." (Vernon J. Watney) on page 16 as "Bought from Mr. L. Lesser, 1899." It is unclear if Watney purchased this work from Lesser privately or through his gallery.  Vernon Watney's label was attached to the reverse of this work, and this work was recorded in his catalog of artworks written in 1915.  She is also referred to as Lady Margaret Wallop, not to be confused with her daughter, Lady Rosalind Margaret Watney.  Sale entitled "Highly Important Pictures by Old Masters" and listed as "The Virgin and Child With Saints". See catalog in curatorial file.
Clodion [1738-1814]. Possibly Catherine II [1729-1796], Saint Petersburg, Russia . Jacques Langlier, until April 24, 1786, (L.1670); (sold at Hôtel de Bullion [1738-1813], on April 24, 1786, lot 150) ; purchased by Jean-Baptiste-Pierre Lebrun [1748-1813], until April 11, 1791 ; Jean-Baptiste-Pierre Lebrun sale, Paris, France, on April 11, 1791, no. 361 ; purchased by Radel? . Stroganoff Family, Saint Petersburg, Russia, by 1863 until 1917 ; Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Saint Petersburg, Russia, 1917 until 1931 ; Rudolph Lepke's Auctions-House, Berlin, Germany, on May 13, 1931, lot 229 . Thelma Chrysler Foy [1902-1957], until 1957; Estate of Thelma Chrysler Foy, 1957 until March 22, 1959; (Parke-Bernet Galleries, New York, NY, on March 22, 1959, lot 670, illustrated) ; (French & Company, Inc., May 22, 1959 until November 1968); (sold at Parke-Bernet Galleries, New York, NY, on November 14, 1968, lot 135, illustrated) ; purchased by Museum, 1968.
NOTES:  See Prachoff, 1904, "Les Tresors d'Art en Russie", pg. 53-56. On page 56, Prachoff writes "A la fin de l'ouvrage voué à Clodion par Thirion (Les Adam et Clodion, Paris, 1885) ets annexée une liste des oeuvres de Clodion qui on apparu aux ventes de 1767 à 1884- L'auteur parle entre autre d'une terre-cuite d'une «petit modéle de la Vestale faite pour L'Impératrice Catherine de Russie».."  This work is listed as by "Claudion" and is described as "Une vestale en terre cuite, petit modele de la figure que cet artiste a exécute en marbre pour l'Imératrice de Russie." This is consistent with the idea that Clodion executed this terracotta work in preparation for the marble Vestal for Catherine II.  Purchased for 245 livres, according to the Getty Provenance Index record for this sale. Lebrun's wife, the painter Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun, painted the granddaughters of Catherine II, and was supposed to paint Catherine II's portrait, but the monarch died before before the sitting happened.  This sale happened at No. 95, rue de Cléry, Paris, France. This work is listed as "Une Vestale voilée et couronnée de fleurs, tenant de la main droit une patére, et de la gauche un vase. Prés d'elle est placé un trepied de forme antique. Cette belle terre cuite fut exécutée avec étude recherchée par cet artiste, dont les productions de ce genre sont toujours précieuses aux amateurs de l'art." The height of this work is listed as "Hauteur, 18 pounces; lageur 7 pouces". These measurements match the museum's sculpture.  This name is recorded differently- in "Notes Sur Clodion, Statuaire, A propos Du Cabinet D'un Amateur, Par F. De Villars", pg 21, a person by the name “Radet” is said to have purchased the work 1791 Lebrun sale for 60 francs. The Getty Provenance Index also lists this name as “Radet”. However, annotated catalogs of this same sale from the Frick Art Reference Library and the French Institut national de histoire de l’art clearly record the name as “Radel”.  While the exact owner and purchase date is unclear, however we know the work was in the collection of the Stroganoff family by 1863, when it appears in a watercolor of the Stroganoff's library by Jules Mayblum. See "Stroganoff: The Palace and Collections of a Russian Noble Family", pg. 84, edited by Penelope Hunter-Stiebel.  Following the Russian Revolution in 1917, many private art collections, including that of the Stroganoff family, were nationalized.  This sale entitled "Sammlung Stroganoff", with this work sold as one of a pair listed as "Zwei Terrakottastatuetten" on pg, 232. This work sells as part of a pair with 68.33.2 for 9500 RM.The sale is being listed as "Im auftrag der handelsvertretung der union der sozialistischen sowjet-republiken". The auction catalog records the date of this sculpture as 1765, which is in error as the date signed on the sculpture is 1768.  Sale entitled " French modern paintings & drawings, eighteenth century French furniture, marble and terra cotta sculptures, bronze doré objects of art …Collected by the late Thelma Chrysler Foy", this work listed as "Nymphe et Vestale" on page 94.  Listed as "Pair of Fine Terra-Cotta Statuettes" on page 72.